FKBPs in bacterial infections
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Background: FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) contain a domain with peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans-isomerase (PPlase) activity and bind the immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin. FKBPs belong to the immunophilin family and are found in eukaryotes and bacteria. Scope of review: In this review we describe two major groups of bacterial virulence-associated FKBPs, the trigger factor and Mip-like PPIases. Moreover, we discuss the contribution of host FKBPs in bacterial infection processes. Major conclusions: Since PPIases are regarded as alternative antiinfective drug targets we highlight current research strategies utilizing pipecolinic acid and cycloheximide derivatives as well as substrate based inhibitors. General significance: The current research strategies suggest a beneficial synergism of drug development and basic research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Proline-directed Foldases: Cell Signaling Catalysts and Drug Targets. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.